Blow the note G several times on your pitch-pipe, but not harshly. Then tune the string.
BLow D repeatedly until you are familiar with the difference and then tune the third string, (D).
THe tuning of the violin is not an easy matter. Many teachers tune the instrument for the pupil and for this reason hundreds who have taken personal instruction for a year cannot tune.
When a slur, (a cured line) is printed over or under two or more notes, they are played with one movement of the bow.
No.1. Use the whole length of the bow giving each note half. COunt 4 for each measure and let each count be one second or even longer. The sign in the 5th measure is a repeat with means, play the 5th measure twice.
The dots over or under the notes signify to play these half notes as if they were quarter notes followed by a quarter rest.
Use the same length of the bow but move twice as fast and wait between the notes without leaving the string.
A dot above or below a note takes away on half of it's time value.
Remember that F is only a half tone higher than E, and C is only one half tone higher than B. These are called semi-tones.
No. 2 is an exercise that requires very careful and patient work. It is particularly for the little finger. Many hold this finger curved and below the finger board; this is wrong, i should always be curved over the finger board.
The figures 4 over the note E tells you to play the note, "E" on the next lower string, (A string).
Play E, F, and G (in the D string) and then play A with the little finger on the same string.
Blow A and then compare that A with the open string.
An "O" signifies simply that the open string must be used.
In the 4th measure you have an octave (8th); compare the G on the fourth string with the G on the second line, (D string). Two notes with the same name but one higher than the other will sound like one if the strings are tuned correctly.
Practice No. 3 changing the bowing for every note then slur as many as are under a tie.
Play the notes G, A, B, C, D, until you place every finger at the right place.
It will require a very slow movement of the right arm to play four half notes with one length of the bow.
A "4" and "O" over a note signifies that you should stop and verify the tuning.
Compare the open strings with the same note made with the 4th finger.
No. 4 is a melodious time study. It does not begin on the first count or beat, but on the 4th. Such a note is called a "starting note."
THe missing part you will find in the last measure.
The sign V above that note indicates an up-bow.
Count: 1,2,3, for No. 5 but slowly.
Start with a down-bow when a piece begins with the first note of a measure.