p h o u k a   h o m e i r i s h   l e s s o n s   h o m e





Passive Voice

This voice is conjugated in the modern mode, by prefixing the auxiliary verb to the participle, thus — biḋ me meallta, I am deceived ; and so throughout. It is therefore expedient to confine the conjugation here to the antient mode.

Imperative Mood.

mealltar, be deceived
mealltar me, let me be deceived, mealltar ṫu, and so through the persons.


Present Tense

Singular Plural
taim meallta, mealltar me, I am deceived tamar meallta, mealltar in
tair meallta, mealltar ṫu taḃar meallta, mealltar iḃ
ta se meallta, mealltar e taid meallta, mealltar iad

Past Tense

meallaḋ me, I was deceived, &c

Future Tense

Meallfaḋar or meallfar me, I will be deceived, &c

Potential Mood

Ṁeallfaiḋe me, I would be deceived, &c

Conditional Mood

da meallfaiḋe me, if I would be deceived, &c

Consuetudinal Mood

Present Tense

mealltar me, I am usually deceived —and so through the persons.

Past Tense

mealltaoiḋe me, I used to be deceived, &c

Infinitive Mood and Participles

do or a ḃeiṫ meallta, to be deceived

Present meallta deceived
Past iar na ḃeiṫ ṁeallta heaving been deceived
Future ar ti ḃeiṫ meallta about to be deceived

The negative and interrogative particles are the same in both voices. The negative particle of the present and future tenses indicative is ni, and of the past tense, nir, iar, or nior,; in the imperative mood it is na. The interrogative of the indicative present and future is a, an, or naċ; and of the past tense ar, naċar, or nar. The influences of these particles on aspiration shall be noticed hereafter.

The following particles are signs of the potential mood — ba, ma if, go until, mur unless. Go and gur, followed by buḋ or fa, form the optative sign; as go, or gur fa, or ḃiḋ, meallta ḃeiḋir may you be deceived.

Affirmative particles are mar as, gur, go, do, that; a who—do and a are also signs of the infinitve mood.

Impersonal Verbs

Impersonal verbs have passive terminations in the several moods and tenses, thus—

Imperative Mood

  luaḋṫar let it be reported
Indic. Pres. luaḋṫar it is reported
Past. lauḋaḋ it was reported
Fut. luaḋfar it will be reported
Potentional Mood
lauḋfaiḋe, it would be reported
Consuetudinal Mood
Lauḋṫaoiḋ, it is usually reported

I shall present here an abstracts of the onjucation of a reflected verb from Neilson, as it exhibits much of the peculiar idiom of the language—it partakes of the character of neuter, and is incapable of being inflected in the passive voice.

Codail, sleep

Imperative Mood

Singular Plural
  codlamaoid, buimid nar gcodlaḋ
codail, bi do ċodlaḋ, sleep though codlaiḋe, biḋ siḃ ḃur gcudlaḋ
codlaḋse, bi se na ċodlaḋ, let him sleep codlaḋ siad, bioḋ siad na gcodlaḋ.

The infinitive mood and participles are not peculiar.

Indicative Moode - Present tense

codlaim, ta me mo ċodlaḋ, I sleep codlamaoid, tamaoid mar gcodlaḋ
codlain tu, ta tu do ċodlaḋ codlain siḃ, ta siḃ ḃur gcodlaḋ
codlain se, ta se na ċodlaḋ codlain siad, ta siad na gcodlaḋ

In a similar manner are the past and future tenses of this mood, and the other moods, &c. conjugated ; combining the proper mood and tense of the auxiliary verb, and the proper pronoun, with the infinitive mood, to express each mood, tense, and person of the reflected


contact me!
grammar of the irish language—mason—1842
©2008 phouka.com