No.1 give you a scale that begins on the note A.
You will have to raise three notes in order that the scale "sounds" the same as the scale of C. The sharps, as you know, placed at the beginning are called the signature.
Notice the order of the sharps: F#, C#, G#. They do not effect the line or space on which they are printed, but every F or G. The slurs merely attract your attention to the half steps or hair tones.
No. 2 give you a short accompaniment exercise. This exercise is very good for time and also for the left hand because you stop two strings at the same place with one finger-tip only.
IN the 2nd measure, there is a rest for the 1st beat. Begin with an up-bow.
At the end of the staff, you are simply given a few of the chords that will occur in the 2nd violin parts in the key of E.
In No. 3, you have again a scale with the same signature as No. 1 but this scale begins on F#. It is termed the relative minor scale of A.
The slurs again show you where half tones occur and in this scale as in all minor scales, the 1st one occurs between the 2nd and 3rd degree or note.
The 7th degree is raised by an accidental, E#.
If you were not to do this, there would be a whole tone from the 7th to the 8th degree which would be wrong.
No. 3 is written all through in whole notes without any time signature to show that you should practice very slowly at first and giving each note the whole length of the bow.
In No. 4, you have again the scale of F# minor, but in a different form which you must be able to play also, and to understand.
Notice that the 6th degree, the note D is also raised by an accidental whereas when you play the scale downwards, you do not change any notes but those which are affected by the signature.
This scale is generally called the Melodic Minor, whereas the one given you in No. 3 is called the Harmonic Minor scale.
WHen you have played No. 4 repeatedly up to the double bar, you end by playing the last measures which consists of the chord notes of the key of A minor, the 1st, 3rd, and 5th.
For pieces to commit to memory and also for bowing exercise, you have to well known melodies.
Before playing a piece of music, you should always look it over carefully and pay attention to the repeat marks.
N.B. When writing always mention instrument. COnfine your questions to ONE LESSON ONLY. Give name of lesson, number of staff and number of measure, and be brief.