Composers when writing music and wishing to put in a few additional notes besides the principal melody, do not "write them.".
They use abbreviations, some sign of their own invention or write the notes smaller.
At A, we show what is called appogiatura. It is a small note printed ahead of the melody note and generally, as you see, as an 8th note with a short stroke through the stem.
These little notes should be played as 32nd or 64ths. In short, they are hardly to be counted. They take a very small fraction of time from the following note. You may compare them to the snap o a finger.
In B, we show you an appogiatura. It practically takes half of the time of the melody note coming after.
In C, we show you how a mordente is to be played. It should be played on the beat.
The turn which you see in No. 1 is an abbreviation which signifies that three notes should be played which are printed. The one illustrated in No. 2, you will seldom or never find in modern music.
THe additional notes which are to be played begin a step lower than the melody note.
The other abbreviations which are illustrated by n umbers, 3 to 10 explain themselves by the second column played.
WHen an accidental is printed over or under a turn, it either affects the note above or below the melody notes. Refer to this sheet when you find some abbreviation that you do not understand. For the present, you may try them slowly.
The "Sailor's Hornpipe" which we give you with this lesson is a good study on account of being written in the key of Bb as well as for the reason that the notes are dotted and have to be played staccato, with very short strokes of the bow and a little rest between the notes but without leaving the strings.
You will perhaps be inclined not to pay attention to these dots and if you do so, the lesson is useless, but if you play this little piece first very slowly, as if it were written in 2/2 time instead of 2/4 time, then you will be able to play it well when you play it faster.
The time for it is a little bit less than two beats of the pulse for a measure.
If you should have to play this "horn Pipe" for dancing, you will of course have to follow the performer and it will have to be repeated a good many times. A sailor's horn pipe consists of a large number of different figures in which the different movements that a sailor has to perform while doing his work on board the ship, are introduced. The dancer generally winds up with an exceedingly rapid movement when you will have to play the piece about four times as fast as you started.