p h o u k a   h o m e i r i s h   l e s s o n s   h o m e


Book I



Verbs beginning with a vowel [a o u e i] or f have d' (do) prefixed in tenses where aspiration would occur in the case of aspirable consonants. For example —

Ól o/l drink
d'ól mé dho/l mae I drank
ól-aim o/l-im I drink
ól-faidh mé o/l-ha mae I will drink
d'ól-fainn dho/l-hing I would drink
d'ólainn dho/l-ing I used to drink
Ith ih eat
d'-ith mé dhih mae I ate
ith-im ih-im I eat
íos-faidh me eess-a mae I will eat
d'íos-fainn dheess-ing I would eat
d'ithinn dhih-ing I used to eat
ith iheh to eat
ag ithe eg iheh eating
ithte ih-tcheh eaten

The verb ith, "eat" is irregular in having s in future and conditional.

Feuch fae'-uch look
d'fheuch mé dhae'-uch mae I looked
feuch-aim faeuch'-im I look
feuch-faidh mé faeuch'-a mae I will look
d'fheuch-fainn dhaeuch'-ing I would look
d'fheuch-ainn dhaeuch'-ing I used to look

Verbs of two syllables ending in -igh or -uigh, and syncopated verbs (that is, whose which naturally shorten) formt heir future in óch instead of f.

The syncoptaed verbs generally end in -air, -ail, -is, as freagair (frag-er), "answer", ceangail (k-yang-il), "tie" or "bind", innis (innish), "tell".

Freagair frag-er answer
d'fhreagair mé dhrag-er mae I answered
freagr-aim fragr-im I answer
freagr-óchaidh fragr-ó mae I will answer
d'ghreagr-óchainn dhragr-o/ing I would answer
d'fhreagr-ainn dhragr-ing I used to answer
marbhuigh moree kill
mharbhuigh mé worree-mae I killed
marbhuigh-im morree-im I kill
marbh-óchaidh mé morr-o/ mae I will kill
mharbh-óchainn worr-o/ing I would kill
mharbh-uighinn worree-ing I used to kill

There is an important rule in Irish spelling that when a broad vowel (a o u) comes before a consonant a broad vowel must follow it, and when a slender vowel (i e) comes before a consonant a slender vowel must follow itl, hence two sets of endings for verbs, as ól-aim, ith-im.




note that
are not
necessarily pronounced
as in English


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