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Titulary what's this?
Horus Name Nebkha, also Sanakhte
Horus Sanakht, "Horus, the Victorious protector" or Horus Sa, "Horus the protector"
Nebty Name  
Golden Horus Name  
Manetho Necherophes, Necherochis, Mesochris
King Lists Nebka "Lord of he Ka"
Alternate Names Sanakhte, Zanakht, Zanacht, Nebka
Dates what's this?
manetho 18-19 years , some sources only 5-7.
turin canon reigned 19 years
swelim reigned 17 years
piccione 2705 -- 2687 BCE
egyptsite 2650 -- 2630 BCE
krauss 2740-2720 BCE
von beckerath 2682-2665 BCE
malek 2647-2628 BCE
redford 2688-2682 BCE
allen 2649-2630 BCE
shaw & nicholson 2686-2667 BCE
Predecessor Khasekhemwy, may have usurped the throne
Successor Djoser
  may be between Djoser and Huni
Associated People
brother (older) Djoser (possibly father)
Wife Initkawes, daughter of Khasekhemwy by Minaathapi
Burial Place
Mastaba K2 ab Beit Khallahf
Small Pyramid on Elephantine
Relief from Wadi Maghara, Sinai

.Kinglists refer to his king as Nebka, others as Sanakhte and there is some question as to whether these are the same person or not. It may be that Nebka founded the dynasty and Sanakhte ruled later, perhaps after Khaba.


One theory holds that Djoser and his mother were already in power when Khasekhemwy died, so he may have usurped the throne from the rightful ruler (Djoser, either his father or brother). Most other egyptologists feel that he is a later king, between Djoser and Huni. His position in the chronology is problematic, as the horus-name Sanakhte cannot be assigned to any of the kings in the king list.  However, it has been suggested that this is a horus-name for the king Nebka, who is only known in the king lists.

The Turin king list and Manetho show the succession as:
Netjerikhet (Djoser)

The papyrus Westcar is different:
Netjerikhet (Djoser)

Others do not mention Nebka at all, including the writings of the Egyptians themselves. The archeological sources show that Nebka should be placed between Djoser and Huni, asserting that the Turin king list misplaced him (assuming you believe that Sanakhte and Nebka are the same king). Tradition holds that he was the founder of the dynasty and the older brother of Djoser, but this has been questioned lately.

Traditionally, Nebka/Sanakhte was considered the founder of the third dynasty, but this has been questioned, since nothing is known of his reign. His tomb has not been identified with any certainty, although the remains found in a mastaba tomb from Beit Kallahf near Abydos match Manetho's description of a tall, heavily built ruler; there is some speculation that this may be his final resting place. No funerary monument (pyramid or temple) has been found.

The name Sanakht has been found in the remain of a small pyramid built on Elephantine (which was the southern border of Egypt at the time --the country was much smaller than we are used to). He is shown smiting a foe, a common "kingly" pose, on a fragment of relief found int eh Sinai, as well.





Mastaba tomb
Pyramid at Elephantine