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Iry-Hor is the oldest ruler of Egypt that is known by name, and who has some attributions to prove his existence. However, the items that bear his name (mostly tall, narrow jars) as the falcon over the mouth sign may not be representing the name of a king at all. The name Iry-Hor never appears in a serekh, which would clearly identify it as the name of a king, and there are no other associations with kingship. The symbol may be the sign of the royal treasury or other office.
Iry-hor was most likely buried in a large, two-chambered mastaba tomb, possibly the oldest tomb in Abydos. The tomb was excavated by Petrie in 1902. Later excavations found more seal impressions and potsherds with his name on them.
The size and location of the mastaba tomb, however, point to the fact that Iry-Hor was a king, even if only a regional one. Items with the names of Narmer and Ka were also found in the tomb, suggesting that it had been reopened and more offerings added.