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Montuhotep II is well known as the "Eldest son of the king", and his father's heir based on inscriptions at Montuhotep II's motruary temple at Deir al-Bahari. Because his father reigned for such a long time, he may have been already in middle age by the time he took the throne, and most sources show that he reigned about twelve years or so. Most documents show that he inherited a strong, propserous counntry and that he continued to thrive.
Most of his focus was on the arts -- the carving and stautary from his reign are far finer than those of his father's, and the style and quality of the art is much better. Most of his deorations are considered to be the best relif-work in the Middle Kingdom. The decline in artisans and fine artwork from the previous kingdom had finally started to turn around with his reign.
There was little military action during his reign -- which would have been a nice change from the warlike years of Montuhotep II's time in office. The pharaon was no longer focused on getting new territory, but more in protecting the vast kingdom that had been so hard won inthe previous decades. He strengthened the presence of the pharaoh in the outlying areas (notably, a cult to him on the north-eastern border was probably to assist in defence against the romaing bedouins of the Sinai.)
Montuhotep III continued to expand trading relationships with other countries, and an expidition to the land of Punt for exotic goods was led by his steward, Henunu.
He was also a prolific builder, despite his short time as pharaoh. He added to his father's mortuary complex, built a shrine to the god Thoth in Deir el-Bahari, and built many small temples in Elephatnine, Eklab, Tod, and Armant, like his father did. His building activities were mostly rebuilding and adding on to existing shrines, including adding fine decorative art to the temples of his father. He did built a fine temple to Thoth near Dierp-el-bahari and a small temple to the god Horus in western Thebes which was not discovered until 1904.
He began to built a tomb complex near his father, Montuhotep II's complex in Deir el-Bahari, but it was never finished. He is buried in a tomb near his father's monument.
Some chronologies show two other kings between Montuhotep III and his son, Montuhotep IV, which supports the idea that his son was not the designated heir and may have usurped the throne from the rightful king. The two pharaohs, Inyotef IV and Iyibre-Khent are nearly entirely unknown.
sanctuary, Medinet Habu