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Titulary what's this?
Horus Name

Men-khau  "Horus, remaining of Apparitions"

Nebty Name unknown
Golden Horus Name

Bik-nub-hedj  "The Golden and Silver falcon"

Praenomen Menkauhor "The Ka's of Horus remain" , or "Eternal are the Souls of Re"

Ikauhor, Kaiu, Hor-ikaw "Re has Appeared"

Manetho Mencheres, Menkeris
King Lists Menkahor
Alternate Names Menkawhor, Menkaouhor
Dates what's this?
manetho reigned 9 years
turin canon reigned 8 years
piccione 2466--2458 BCE
egyptsite 2422--2414 BCE
krauss 2420-2410
von beckerath 2389-2380
malek 2377-2369
redford 2444-2436
allen 2389-2381
Predecessor Brother (or father) Niuserre
Successor Son Djedkare
(possibly brother or cousin - a son of Neferefre)
Associated People
Father Niuserre
Mother Reput-Nebu
Brother (possible) Djedkare
Son (possible) Djedkare
Burial Place
unknown, although his pyramid is listed in inscriptions as "Netjery-isut-Menkawhor"
Pyramid attested in inscriptions, possibly the "Headless Pyramid" in Saqqara
Sun Temple ("Akhet-re") attested in inscription, but location unknown

The relationships between the last few pharaohs is up in the air. It's usually assumed that Menkauhor was the father of his successor, Djedkare. However, this may not be true, and in fact he may have been the brother of Djedkare (both sons of Niuserre), or possibly Djedkare could have been a son of Neferefre, making Menkauhor a cousin. In this case, it is assumed that Menkauhor was actually a son of Niuserre instead of his brother. Confusing, isn't it?


Menkauhor is reputed to have built both a pyramid and a sun temple -- although neither has been reliably identified. Both of these monuments are mentioned in private tombs and it is assumed that his sun temple is located either in Abu sir (with the sun temples of Userkaf, Niuserre, Sahure, etc) or at Saqqara. The temple, called "Akhet-re", was probably the last of its kind, since the solar cult seemed to decline after the fifth dynasty.

The pyramid, on the other hand, may be the unfinished pyramid that is found at Dashur, called "The headless pyramid". The pyramid was named "Divine are the Places of Menkauhor" in writings. If the pyramid in Dashur does belong to him, as some evidence suggests, it is a departure from the rest of the dynasty to build in Dashur instead of Abu sir or Saqqara. The pyramid is just to the east of Teti's complex The pyramid may belong to a 9th or 10th dynasty king, Merikare instead of Menkauhor, however, as it is simi liar to the complex of Teti. There are some connections between the cult of Menkauhor and Teti.

Some date the pyramid to before Unas, since no Pyramid Texts exist in the pyramid (Unas, the last king of the Fifth Dynasty, was the first to include the hieroglyphs in his burial chamber). This means that is definitely belonged to someone in the fifth dynasty or before.

Even with these reputed monuments to his credit, Menkauhor is possibly the least attested ruler of the fifth dynasty. An inscription in the Sinai -- where he sent troops to acquire materials for his tomb -- and some seals in Abu Sir definitely mention him, and his works are mentioned in the private toms of the area, but nothing else. A small alabaster statue of Menkauhor is in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The turin canon credits him with eight years, which seems to be supported by most recent evidence.

However, we can make some assumptions about him, based on his predecessorNiuserre and his successor Djedkare. Both of those pharaohs quarried in Aswan for their monuments, so it likely that Menkauhor did as well. He probably continued diplomatic and economic relations with Byblos, since they exists both before and after him. He probably had good relations with Nubia. Since both Niuserre and Djedkare sent missions to Punt, he may have as well.





Neferirkare (Kakai)


Solar Temple
Pyramid at Dashur