Something like 90% of the population of Egypt lives within a few miles of the Nile. The river provides rich farmland and other resources. Most of the country is inhospitable desert, with only a few areas in the desert fit for habitation.
Egypt has several major oases.
The enormous lake Qaoun is here, and Fayoum is the largest of the desert oases in Egypt. It is only about tww hours from Cairo, and is a popular holiday spot. There are a number of pharaonic sites and many greco-roman archeological sites nearby.
This oasis is well known for its palm trees and flourishing agriculture. There are famous mineral springs and sulphur springs here (almost 400 of them!) The Valley of the Golden Mummies is nearby.
The second to last stop on the Forty-Days road across the desert.
A number of greco-roman tombs and temples are here, and Dakhla was once a trading post with Nubia.
This is a small, isoldated village with many roman ruins nearby.
This oasis is populated by berbers who speak their own language and have their own culture and costume. The ruins of the old city of Shali are here, under the foundations of the new city, including some 26th dynasty tombs and pharaonic temples.