p h o u k a  h o m e i r i s h  l e s s o n s  h o m e

Book 2:


  43 44 45
46 47 48 49
50 51 52 53
54 55 56 57
58 59 60 61
62 63 64 65
66 67 68 69
70 71 72 73
74 75 76 77
78 79 80 81
82 83 84 85
86 87 88 89
90 91 92 93


exercise LXVIII

§ 398. Eclipsis of f

Instead of saying arn fíon, our wine, etc., the speakers of Irish found it easier to say arn víon. Instead of arn fuil, our blood, they said arn Wil. This new sound of v or W they represented by aspirated. Then, when the n of the eclipsing words dropped out, they began to write, as we do now, ar ḃfíon (veen), ar ḃfuil (Wil). Hence we say that f is eclipsed by aspirated.

§ 399. The particle an, used in asking questions, causes eclipsis, as, an ḃfaca tú? (ăn Wok'-ă thoo) did you see? An ḃfuil tú go maiṫ? (ăn wil thoo gŭ mah), are you well?. See § 257. An ḃfuil sgian agat? Ata. Have you a knife? I have (yes). In the spoken language the an, or at least the n, is usually omitted before consonants; hence 'dtuigeann tú, 'ḃfuil tú are the forms usually heard.

§ 400. Tuigeann sé (thig'-ăN), he understands. Ní ṫuigeann sí (hig'-ăN), she does not understand; an dtuigeann tú? (dhig'-ăN) do you understand?

§ 401. A, her, has no effect on the following consonant; a bróg, her shoe, a ḃróg, his shoe; a mbróg (mrōg), their shoe.

§ 402. Translate into English

  • Ár ḃfuil agus ar ḃfeoil , ní ḟaca mé ḃur ḃfuinneog nuaḋ fós.
  • An ḃfaca tú Seumas indiu?
  • Ní ḟaca mé Seumas; ní ṫáinic sé a ḃaile fós.
  • Táinic sé a ḃaile indé, aċt níṫáinic Miċeál leis.
  • An ḃfuil d’aṫair tinn?
  • Atá sé tin go leor, atá sé in a luiġe fós.
  • An ḃfuil do ṁáṫair tinn?
  • Ní ḟuil sí tinn anois, atá sí in a suiḋe.
  • An dtuigeann tú Gáeḋilg?
  • Ní ṫigeann Míċeál Gáeḋilge fós.; ní ṫuigeann sé aċt an Beurla.
  • An ḃfuil capall agat? Ní ḟuil aċt atá asal beag agam.
  • An ḃfuair tú airgead in do ṗóca? Ní ḟuair mé airgead, aċt fuair mé litir.

§ 403. Translate into Irish

  • He does not understand me.
  • The man is old, he does not understand the child.
  • Have you a good horse? I have.
  • Put the saddle on your horse.
  • Did you see my horse today? No.
  • Your wine is strong; you gotyour wine in another country, you did not get your wine in Ireland.
  • Did the man die yet? He did not; he is not lying now, he is up and he is on the lake in a boat today.
  • DId the saint find a new country?
  • He did; he found America and he came home in his boat to Ireland.

note that
are not
necessarily pronounced
as in English

See § 13-16


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