p h o u k a  h o m e i r i s h  l e s s o n s  h o m e

Book 2:


  43 44 45
46 47 48 49
50 51 52 53
54 55 56 57
58 59 60 61
62 63 64 65
66 67 68 69
70 71 72 73
74 75 76 77
78 79 80 81
82 83 84 85
86 87 88 89
90 91 92 93


exercise LXXIV

§ 433.A sentence is a saying which conveys some complete meaning; as atá Tomás tinn; ní raiḃ Briġiḋ ag an tobar indiu; fuairan fear bás.

§ 434. Every sentence may be divided into two parts; (I) the thing spoken about, or the subject of the sentence, as Tomás, Brigid, an fear, above; and (2) what is said about the subject, as atá tinn, is sick; ní raiḃ ag an tobar, was not at the well; fuair bás, died.

§ 435. In the sentences above, the words Tomás, Briġiḋ, an fear, are said to be in the nominative case.

§ 436. In the sentences "Hugh burned the boat", "Art struck the horse", "the King killed the Druid", the words "boat", "horse", "druid" are said to be in the objective case. For further illustration of the meaning of the sentence subject, case, etc, see any English Grammar. The objective case in Irish is commonly called the accusative.

§ 437. In modern Irish, as in English, the nominative and objective cases of words are the same in form.

§ 438. The article an aspirates the first consonant of feminine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases.

an ḃean (van) the woman
an ḃó (Wō) the cow
an ċaora (CHaer'-ă) the sheep
ċarraig (CHor'-ĕg) the rock
an ċaṫaoir (CHoh'-eer) the chair
an ḟeoil (yōl) the meat
an ṗáirc (fau'-irk) the field

The student should here look back at what has been said about the effect of aspiration on the sounds of the letters, especially at the beginning of words.

§ 439. Translate into English

  • Taḃair ḋom an ċaṫaoir.
  • Taḃair an ḟeoil do Nóra.
  • Ní’l an ṗáirc glas anois.
  • Ḃí an capall agus an ḃó ag an tobar.
  • Ní’l an ċarraig ag an dún anois, atá sí briste suas.
    Cuir an ċaora agus an ḃó in do ṗáirc.
  • Ná fág an ḃean ag an doras.

§ 440. Translate into Irish

  • The tall man and the young woman.
  • The woman died; the man did not die.
  • Do not leave the chair at the door.
  • Do not give the hay to the ass.
  • Do not give the meat to me; give bread to me.
  • The meat is scarce.
  • I did not seeyour coaw on the road.
  • He did ot see the cow and the calf.


note that
are not
necessarily pronounced
as in English

See § 13-16


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