p h o u k a  h o m e i r i s h  l e s s o n s  h o m e

Book 3:


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exercise CXXV

§ 717. The verb atá after particles.

We have seen that three parts of the verb atá, the IMPERFECT, PERFECT, and CONIDITONAL always have the particle do before them, in the absence of any other particle. This is true of almost all verbs in those three tenses.

§ 718. We have also seen that instead of atáim, etc, and do ḃiḋeas, etc the forms fuilim, etc and raḃas, etc are used after particles. To this the particles (mau), if, is an exception. differs from in meaning, is used only with the conditional or imperfect and implies a condition which may or may not be verified; is used with the indicative mood, and does not imply such a condition. Examples:

Má 'tá an aimsir fuar, if the weather is cold (as a matter of fact)
Má ḃí sí fuar, if it was (as a fact) cold
Dá mbíoḋ sí fuar, if it were cold (as a supposition)
Dá mbéiḋeaḋ sí fuar, if it should be cold (supposition)

Atá sé aosta, aċt má tá féin, atá sé láidir, he is sold, but eve if he is (lit, if he is itself he is strong. (do) ḃí sé ar an aonaċ, ní ḟacamise é, if he was at the fiar, I did not see him. On the contrary, a condition is implied in dá mbéiḋeaḋ sé ar an aonaċ indiu, do ḃeiḋeaḋ sé ag dul a ḃaile anois.

The particle causes aspiration. But má tá, if (he) is, má 'deir, if (he) says, are used, because the verbs really begin with a vowel, atá, adeir. is becomes má 's, as má 's maiṫ leat, if you like.

§719. Translate into English

Do bhí sé ag fearthainn aréir, acht má bhí féin, ní'l an bóthar ró-fhliuch. Dá mbéidheadh báisdeach mhór (nó fearthainn mhór) ann, do bhéidhead an t-uisge ar an mbóthar ar maidin indiu. Mach dtáinig an t-Athair Seaghan a bhaile indé? Tháinig, acht má tháinig féin, ní'l sé sa' mbaile anois, chuaidh sé anonn go Doire ar maidin. Ní fiú dhó teacht a bhaile, acht do b'fhiú leis teacht a bhaile. Do bhí fear ann fad' ó, agus is fada ó do bhí sé ann; do bhí sé 'na rígh, agus do bhí mac aige. Do bhí an ri an-oista agus do bhí an bás ag teacht air gach lá acht do bhí an mac an-óg, agus ní raibh ciall aige.

§ 720. Translate into Irish

  • I was out on the road, but even if I was (= still, nevertheless), I saw nothing.
  • He is poor, but still he is a good man.
  • Who is that at the door? I do not know him; I do not know who he is.
  • She will be angry, but even if she will be, I do not care.
  • We were afraid, nevertheless we went out on the road, and we went home.
  • He will not be here today, but we shall be here tomorrow.
  • Even if you are, he will not be here.
  • That is his house there.

note that
are not
necessarily pronounced
as in English

See § 13-16


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