p h o u k a  h o m e i r i s h  l e s s o n s  h o m e

Book 3:


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exercise CXXXV

The verb to be in dependent sentences

§ 789. I think that the horse is there. He said that you were coming. It is true that he will be here. He sent me word that he was not coming. In all these sentences the verb TO BE is in a dependent clause, depending on the first verb. Sentences of this kind follow verbs meaning to think, to say, to hear, to write, or communicate in any way; or phrases like it is true, likely, false, etc.

§ 790. In English the dependent clauses are usually introduced by the word that, but this word is often omitted; as, "he said (that) he was coming". In Irish this word that is translated by go, which can never be omitted.

§ 791. When there is a negative particle in the dependent clause; as, he said that he was not coming, the words that...not are translated by nach. As, duḃairt Peadar go raiḃ Doṁnall ag teaċt. Peter said that Donall was doming. Duḃairt Doṁnall naċ raiḃ sé ag teaċt, Donal said that he was not coming.

§ 792. In translating sentences like "he says that the weather is dry now", "It is true that Peter is coming", "I heard that he will not be here", " Tell him that Peter was not the man", etc, we have (I) to ascertain the Irish words for say, tell, hear, thing, etc; then (2) place them after the proper word the particles go or naċ, both of which cause eclipsis; then (3) place after go or naċ the proper part ofthe verb to be, whether atá, biḋim, or is.

§ 793. Adeir (ă-der) sé go ḃfuil ocras air féin, agus naċ ḃfuil ocras ar an ḃfear eile, he says that he is hungry himself and that the other man is not hungry. Adier is usually shortened to deir, like atá to .

§ 794. Aduḃairt (ă-dhoo-ărt) Doṁnall go mbiḋeann sé ag obair anois, agus maċ mbiḋeann sé 'sa mbaile aċt 'san oiḋċe. Donal said that he does be working now, and that he does be at home only at night. Aduḃairt is usually shortened to duḃairt.

§ 795. Measaim (mas'-i/m) go raiḃ an capall saor, ní ṁeasaim (vas'-im) go raiḃ sé daor. I think the horse was cheap, I do not think he was dear. An measann Pádraig go mbéiḋ fearṫainn againn? Measann sé naċ mbéiḋ. Does Patrick think that we shall have rain? He thinks we shall not.

§ 796. Measai is the word most often used in Ulster, the word saoilim (oftener silim, sheelim) is common everywhere. In Munster is dóiġ liom go, it is an opinion with me that, I think that. An dóíġ (dhō-ee) leat go mbéiḋeaḋ fearg air, do you think he would be angry. Ní dóiġ liom go mbéiḋeaḋ. I don't think he would. In West Connaught, the usual phrase is atá mé ag ceapaḋ (kap'-oo), I am thinking.

Abair, say; na h-abair, (hob'-ir), don't say.
Abeir, says, abuḃairt, said

N.B. —"to" after words, meaning, "to say" "to speak", is translated by le, as abair leis teaċt asteaċ, say to him (tell him) to come in. But innis, tell, is followed by do, as innis sgeul dúinn, tell (to) us a story.

§ 797. Translate into English

An bḟaca tú Pádraig ag dul suas an bóṫar? Measaim go raiḃ deifir ṁór air. Ní ṁeasaim go raiḃ. Saoilim go mbéiḋ aonaċ mór annso indiu. Ní ṡaoilim (heelim) go mbéiḋ. An dóiġ leat go mbéiḋ coirce maiṫ agat i mbliaḋna? Abair go ḃfuil fuaċt, nó slaġdán, nó rud éidigneile ort, agus naċ maiṫ leat (that you dont' like to) dul amaċ ins an oiḋċe, agus an imsir ḟuar atá ann anois.Na h-adair naċ maiṫ leat dul a baile leo, do béiheaḋ fearg orra. Arḃ' í rud (was that?) an ḃean do ḃiḋeaḋ in a coṁnuiḋe annso fad' ó? Do ḃí; agus aduḃairt sí go ḃfuil sí ag teaċt annso arís. An ḃfuil fear an tiġe 'na ṡuiḋe fós? atá saoilim go ḃfuil sé amuiġ ar an mbóṫar.

§ 798. The word ar, arra, already given, is used only when the exact words of the speakera re given; as, "Atá ocras mór orm", arr' an gaḃa; "I am very hungry", says the smith. The words adeir, says, aduḃairt, said are used whenthe exact words of the speaker are not given; as, aduḃairt an gaḃa go raiḃ ocras mór air, the smith said that he was very hungry.

§ 799. Translate into Irish

  • "Have you a horse?" says the king. "I have," says Donal.
  • And Cormac said that he himself had another horse, and that he was saddled.
  • Say that they are in a hurry today.
  • Patrick says that it is raining
  • James says that is is not; another man says that there is no water at all in the river.
  • Cormac told me that he was not coming with me, and I came alone (= with myself).
  • Did you come alone? Your brother says that you did not, but that another man came with you.
  • It is not true that the old man died last night.

note that
are not
necessarily pronounced
as in English

See § 13-16


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