p h o u k a  h o m e i r i s h  l e s s o n s  h o m e

Book 3:


  95 96 97
98 99 100 101
102 103 104 105
106 107 108 109
110 111 112 113
114 115 116 117
118 119 120 121
122 123 124 125
126 127 128 129
130 131 132 133
134 135 136 137
138 139 140  


exercise XCIX

§ 550. The present tense of the verb "to be" in English is:—

Singular Plural
I am We are
Thou art You are
He, She, It is They, etc, are

For he, she, it we can substitute any noun; as John is, the horse is, the earth is. For(they) we can substitute any noun in the plural, as, the horses are, John and James are, etc.

§ 551. We have already seen that the ordinary form in Irish is atá mé, etc, or as people generaly say, 'tá (thau) ; thus,

'tá me 'tá sinn
'tá tú 'tá siḃ
'tá (sé, sí) 'tá siad

It is just as easy to us to use the correct form atá mé, etc. hence we have used it throughout.

§ 552. We can now go a step farther. Although we now say atá mé, I am, this was not always the case. The older and better form is atáim. And so with the other parts:

atáim ăthau'-im I am
atáir ă-thau'-ir thou art
atá sé/sí   is
atámuid ă-thau'-mwid we are
atáṫaoi ă-thau'-hee you are
atáid ă-thau'-id they are

The student should commit this to memory.

§ 553. We may notice that (I) the form atáṫaoi, you are, is now confined to the South, atá siḃ being always used elsewhere; (2) in West Munster the form ataoi, 'taoi (thee) is used for atáir in many phrases; as sonn ataoi (sŭNă-thee'), here you are! ca'nnas 'taoi? (koN'-ăs thee) what way are you? (3) The other forms are in use especially in answers to questions. The use of atáim, atámuid, etc for atá mé, atá sinn is one of the best tests of a good speaker of Irish. (4) In Munster atámuíd (usually spelled atámaoid) ă-thau-mweed, is used for atámuid, the last syllable being lengthened.

An ḃfuil tú astiġ? Atáim. Are you within? I am (yes).
An ḃfuil siḃ go maiṫ? Atámuid. Are you well? We are.

§ 554. In the same way, instead of ní ḟuil mé, an ḃfuil sinn? It is better to say ní ḟuilim, an ḃfuilmid? Thus—

fuilim (fwil'-im) fuilmid (fwil'-mid)
fuilir (fwil'-ir) fuiltí (fwil'-tee)
fuil fuilid (fwil-id)

Fuiltí is only spoken in the South. As fuil is generally found after a word that aspirates or eclipses it, the forms of this verb most in use are—

§ 555. With ní ḟuilim, etc, contracted to nílim, etc.

ní'lim (neel'-im) I am not
ní'lir (neel'-ir) thou art not
ní'l sé/sí   is not
ní'lmid (neel'-m we are not
ní'l siḃ (ní'ltí)   you are not
ní'lid (neel'-id) they are not

In Munster, ní'lmid (neel'-meed) for ní'lmid





note that
are not
necessarily pronounced
as in English

See § 13-16


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