§ 639. We have seen that the real difference between is and atá consists in this, that is means is always and atá means is now, implying a state. Thus is fear é, he is a man. Notice (I) the position of the words (I) is, (2) the noun which in the English sentence follows the verb to be, (3) the nominative issue. Is fear é means "he is a man", and not a woman. Is fear Seumas, is bean Nóra; or, more usually, is fear é Seumas, is bean í Nóra. But atá sé in a ḟear, "he is a man", means "he is now (or has grown to be) a man, is no longer a boy".
So, is buine mé, I am a person, not an irrational animal, or thing. But we should hardly say atá sé 'na ḋuine, he is (now, or has become) a person, because one does not become a person. We can say atá sé 'na duine ṁaiṫ, he is a good person, because a person can become good.
§ 640. Naċ, not , used in sentences with the verb is where a question is asked. The verb is is, aas after other particles, left out. Naċ tú an fear? Are you not you the man? Is mé, I am. Naċ í sin an ḃean? Is í, Is not that the woman? It is.
as in English