p h o u k a  h o m e i r i s h  l e s s o n s  h o m e

Book 3:


  95 96 97
98 99 100 101
102 103 104 105
106 107 108 109
110 111 112 113
114 115 116 117
118 119 120 121
122 123 124 125
126 127 128 129
130 131 132 133
134 135 136 137
138 139 140  


Exercise CXVIII

§ 670. Instead of ḃí mé, ḃí tú, etc, ths older and more proper forms are—

do ḃiḋeas dhu-vee'-ăs I was
do ḃiḋis dhŭ vee'-ish thou wast
do ḃí (sé, sí) dhŭ vee (he, she, it) was
do ḃiḋeamar dhŭ vee'-ă-măr we were
do ḃiḋeaḃar dhŭ vee'-ă-wăr ye were
do ḃiḋeadar dhŭ vee'-ădhăr they were

§ 671. And in the same way, instead of ní raibh mé, etc—

an, ní, naċ, go raḃas rou'-ăs
raḃais rou'-ish
raiḃ (sé, sí) rev
raḃamar rou'-ă-măr
raḃaḃar rou'-ă-wăr
raḃadar rou'-ă-dhăr

§ 672. These forms are still used by the best speakers of Irish, especialy in answers to questions; as, an raḃais ar an aonaċ? Do ḃiḋeas. Where you at the fiar? I was. An raiḃ Art agus Cormac leat? Ní raḃadar. Were Art and Cormac with you? They were not.

§ 673. Strictly speaking, the perfect t4ense of every verb should be preceded by do— in fact, it is this do which causes apsiration of the first consonant of the verb. Thus, the ordinary bí sé is only the short form of the correct do ḃí sé. The use of do, and of the forms ḃiḋeas, ḃiḋeamar, etc, is much more common in Munster than elsewhere.

§ 674. The particle do is never used, however, when the verb is preceded by a negative (), interrogative (an, naċ) or other particle. Thus, an raiḃ, not an do raiḃ.

§ 675. The word eaḋ (ah) it. Naċ breaġ an lá é? Is eaḋ, go deiṁin. Is it not a fine day? It is so, indeed. (Is eaḋ is always pronounced ish-ah, shortened to shah). An Sagranaċ é? Ní h-eaḋ (hah). Is he an Englishman? He is not so. This neuter pronoun is never used except after the verb is. (see § 657.)

When is in the principal sentence is (or would be) followed by a pronoun, eaḋ cannot be used in reply., but the pronoun of the principal sentence must be repeated. as, Naċ é Cormac an rí? Ní h-é (not ní h-eaḋ) Is not C. the king? No. An iad na páisdí atá tinn? Ní h-iad. Is it the children that are sick? No.



note that
are not
necessarily pronounced
as in English

See § 13-16


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